Self-Reliance was first published in 1841 in his collection, Essays: First Series. However, scholars argue the underlying philosophy of his essay emerged in a sermon given in September 1830 - a month after his first marriage to Ellen (who died the following year of tuberculosis) - and in lectures on the philosophy of history given at Boston's Masonic Temple from 1836 to 1837.
The essay, for which Emerson is perhaps the most well known, contains the most thorough statement of Emerson’s emphasis on the need for individuals to avoid conformity and false consistency, and instead follow their own instincts and ideas. The essay illustrates Emerson's finesse for synthesizing and translating classical philosophy (e.g., self-rule in Stoicism, the Bildung of Goethe, and the revolution of Kant) into accessible language, and for demonstrating its relevance to everyday life.
While Emerson does not formally do so, scholars conventionally organize Self-Reliance into three sections: the value of and barriers to self-reliance (paragraph 1-17), self-reliance and the individual (paragraph 18-32), and self-reliance and society (paragraph 33-50).
The Value of and Barriers to Self-Reliance (paragraph 1-17)
Emerson opens his essay with the assertion, "To believe in your own thought, to believe that what is true for you in your private heart is true for all men, - that is genius." His statement captures the essence of what he means by "self-reliance," namely the reliance upon one's own thoughts and ideas. He argues individuals, like Moses, Plato, and Milton, are held in the highest regard because they spoke what they thought. They did not rely on the words of others, books, or tradition. Unfortunately, few people today do so; instead, "he dismisses without notice his thought, because it is his."
If we do not listen to our own mind, someone else will say what we think and feel, and “we shall be forced to take with shame our own opinion from another.” Emerson thus famously counsels his reader to "Trust thyself." In other words, to accept one's destiny, "the place the divine providence has found for you, the society of your contemporaries, the connection of events." If such advice seems easier said than done, Emerson prompts his reader to recall the boldness of youth.
Their mind being whole, their eye is as yet unconquered, and when we look in their faces we are disconcerted. Infancy conforms to nobody; all conform to it; so that one babe commonly makes four or five out of the adults who prattle and play to it. So God has armed youth and puberty and manhood no less with its own piquancy and charm, and made it enviable and gracious and its claims not be put by, if it will stand by itself.
The difficulty of trusting our own mind lies in the conspiracy of society against the individual, for society valorizes conformity. As a youth, we act with independence and irresponsibility, and issue verdicts based on our genuine thought. We are unencumbered by thoughts about consequences or interests. However, as we grow older, society teaches us to curb our thoughts and actions, seek the approval of others, and concern ourselves with names, reputations, and customs. What some would call "maturity," Emerson would call "conformity."
To be a self-reliant individual then, one must return to the neutrality of youth, and be a nonconformist. For a nonconformist, "No law can be sacred to me but that of my nature. Good and bad are but names very readily transferable to that or this; the only right is what is after my constitution; the only wrong what is against it.” Emerson does not advocate nonconformity for the sake of rebellion per se, but rather so the world may know you for who are, and so you may focus your time and efforts on reinforcing your character in your own terms.
However, the valorization of conformity by society is not the only barrier to self-reliance. According to Emerson, another barrier is the fear for our own consistency: "a reverence for our past act or word because the eyes of others have no other data for computing our orbit than our past acts, and we are loth to disappoint them.” Rather than act with a false consistency to a past memory, we must always live in the present. We must become, rather than simply be. Emerson famously argues, "A foolish consistency is the hobgoblin of little minds, adored by little statesmen and philosophers and divines." While acting without regard to consistency may lead to us being misunderstood, the self-reliant individual would be in good company. "Pythagoras was misunderstood, and Socrates, and Jesus, and Luther, and Copernicus, and Galileo, and Newton, and every pure and wise spirit that ever took flesh. To be great is to be misunderstood."
Self-Reliance and the Individual (paragraph 18-32)
In this section, Emerson expounds on how individuals can achieve self-reliance.
As mentioned earlier, to live self-reliantly with genuine thought and action, one must "trust thyself." In other words, one must trust in the nature and power of our inherent capacity for independence, what Emerson calls, "Spontaneity" or "Instinct" - the "essence of genius, of virtue, and of life." This Spontaneity or Instinct is grounded in our Intuition, our inner knowledge, rather than "tuitions," the secondhand knowledge we learn from others. In turn, Emerson believed our Intuition emerged from the relationship between our soul and the divine spirit (i.e., God). To trust thyself means to also trust in God.
To do so is more difficult than it sounds. It is far easier to follow the footprints of others, to live according to some known or accustomed way. A self-reliant life "shall be wholly strange and new. It shall exclude example and experience. You take the way from man, not to man."
As such, one must live as courageously as a rose.
Man is timid and apologetic; he is no longer upright; he dares not say, “I think,” “I am,” but instead quotes some saint or sage. He is ashamed before the blade of grass or the blowing rose. These roses under my window make no reference to former roses or to better ones; they are for what they are; they exist with God today. There is no time to them. There is simply the rose; it is perfect in every moment of its existence… But man postpones or remembers; he does not live in the present, but with reverted eye laments the past, or, heedless of the riches that surround him, stands on tiptoe to foresee the future. He cannot be happy and strong until he too lives with nature in the present, above time.
To live in the present with nature and God, one must not worry about the past or future, compare oneself to others, or rely on words and thoughts not one's own.
Self-Reliance and Society (paragraph 33-50)
In the concluding paragraphs of Self-Reliance, Emerson argues self-reliance must be applied to all aspects of life, and illustrates how such an application would benefit society. “It is easy to see that a greater self-reliance must work a revolution in all the offices and relations of men; in their religion; in their education; in their pursuits; their modes of living; their association; in their property; in their speculative views.”
In regard to religion, Emerson believes a lack of self-reliance has led prayers to become “a disease of the will” and creeds “a disease of the intellect.” People pray to an external source for some foreign addition to their life, whereby prayer acts as a means to a private end, such as for a desired commodity. In this way, prayer has become a form of begging. However, prayer should be a way to contemplate life and unite with God (i.e., to trust thyself and also in God). Self-reliant individuals do not pray for something, but rather embody prayer (i.e., contemplation and unification with God) in all their actions. “The prayer of the farmer kneeling in his field to weed it, the prayer of the rower kneeling with the stroke of his oar, are true prayers heard throughout nature, though for cheap ends.”
Emerson also believes true prayer involves an avoidance of regret and discontent, which indicate a personal “infirmity of will,” as well as of sympathy for the suffering of others, which only prolongs their own infirmity, and instead should be handled with truth and health to return them to their reason.
As for creeds, his critique focuses on how those who cling to creeds obey the beliefs of a powerful mind other than their own, rather than listen to how God speaks through their own minds. In this way, they disconnect with the universe, with God, because the creed becomes mistaken for the universe.
In regard to education, Emerson asserts the education system fosters a restless mind that causes people to travel away from themselves in hope of finding something greater than what they know or have. Educated Americans desire to travel to foreign places like Italy, England, and Egypt for amusement and culture. They build and decorate their houses with foreign taste, their minds to the Past and the Distant. Artists imitate the Doric or the Gothic model. Yet, Emerson reminds us, “They who made England, Italy, or Greece venerable in the imagination, did so by sticking fast where they were, like an axis of the earth.” One should not yearn for or imitate that which is foreign to oneself, for “Your own gift you can present every moment with the cumulative force of a whole life’s cultivation; but of the adopted talent of another you have only an extemporaneous half possession… Every great man is unique.” (Emerson develops these ideas further in his essay, The American Scholar, which calls for the creation of a uniquely American cultural identity distinct from European traditions.)
Finally, Emerson addresses the “spirit of society.” According to Emerson, “society never advances.” Civilization has not led to the improvement of society because with the acquisition of new arts and technologies comes the loss of old instincts. For example, “The civilized man has built a coach, but has lost the use of his feet… He has a fine Geneva watch, but he fails of the skill to tell the hour by the sun.” Society merely changes and shifts like a wave. While a “wave moves onward… the water which it is composed does not.” As such, people are no greater than they ever were, and should not smugly rest on the laurels of past artistic and scientific achievements. They must instead actively work to achieve self-reliance, which entails a return to oneself, and liberation from the shackles of the religious, learned, and civil institutions that create a debilitating reliance on property (i.e., things external from the self).
Emerson concludes, “Nothing can bring you peace but yourself. Nothing can bring you peace but the triumph of principles.”
Self Reliance Summary
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The American transcendentalist philosopher Ralph Waldo Emerson wrote his essay “Self Reliance”in 1841. It was first published that same year in a collection titled Essays: First Series. The philosophical leanings that would become the essay were evident in a sermon Emerson delivered in September of 1830. During 1836 and 1837, he built on his themes in a series of lectures at Boston’s Grand Lodge or Masonic Temple. Emerson was a founder of the transcendentalist movement in the U.S., writing of “individualism, personal responsibility, and nonconformity.” The movement had strong roots in New England and had as central tenets ideas that stemmed from other philosophical mindsets including Unitarianism, Romanticism, and German Idealism. Many of the beliefs, such as individualism and reform, were dear to the core American values of the era, thus providing a built-in audience that agreed with Emerson’s viewpoints.
The essay opens with a call to believe in the true self. Emerson points to one’s infancy as the model to be followed in that it encourages the development of a spirit of independence and non-conformity. To Emerson an individual’s personal growth is reliant upon losing one’s tendency toward conformity. Society is seen as having a negative impact on the growth of individual spirit while conversely, solitude encourages such growth. Emerson encourages living by instinct even if it is from the devil. Here he is being factitious; his point is that inherent moral sentiment, which is what leads a person to self-sufficiency, cannot stem from the devil. Unqualified trust in emotions may lead to contradictions as emotions change, but Emerson accounts for this, calling life a process that is organic thus containing contradictions.
Emerson believes each person has an instinct that draws upon a universal spirit to provide a consistent guide to living. An individual guided by intuition or instinct is following the universal spirit. From a formal religion perspective, Emerson looks at every individual as a potential reincarnation of the “Word,” while up to that point, only Christ was regarded as such. This supports the concept of living in and for the present, free from the need to refer to the past or worry about the future, both toxic to the human condition and best avoided.
Plato, Milton, and Moses are cited as exemplars of individuals who are revered for being willing to speak their own minds. They did not lean on the work of those who came before them. Emerson argues that people rarely follow that course of action, and they devalue their own thoughts simply because they are their own. Man must learn to listen to his own mind lest “we be forced to take with shame our own opinion from another.” When feeling that this is not possible, Emerson suggests directing oneself toward youth where conformity has not yet taken over. At the earlier stages of life, societal norms do not suppress desires to act independently and irresponsibly, allowing decisions based on personal thought.
As individuals age, society widely encourages the individual to seek the approval of others, to act in accordance with traditions, and to be concerned with reputation. Rather than seeing this as a process of maturing, Emerson considers it a process of conforming. One cannot be self-reliant without embracing nonconformity and the unrestrained attitudes of youth. The essayist is not calling for rebellion but rather a state where the world may see the individual for who he is and where the individual can concentrate on developing character on his own terms.
In addition to the constraints of conformity leveled upon individuals by society, there are the negative consequences of a desire to live up to or be consistent with past experiences. We must strive to live only in the present. “A foolish consistency is the hobgoblin of little minds, adored by little statesmen and philosophers and divines.” It matters not if this leads to an individual being misunderstood. To Emerson, such a person would be in good company as he includes Jesus, Luther, Copernicus, Pythagoras, Newton, and Galileo among the misunderstood. Being misunderstood is an essential component of being self-reliant and wise of spirit. “To be great is to be misunderstood.”
Acceptance of one’s individual destiny is essential to Emerson. Truths are within the person and must be found there rather than through adherence to formal religion as a way of increasing spirituality. Prayer, he feels, should not be an avenue for asking for things, but rather a method of thinking about life and becoming one with God. Individuals must follow what they believe to be right without regard to the opinions of others. Solitude is of far more use than is community in fostering self-growth.