The American Political System Essay
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The American Political System The American political system is a federal system, which consists of division of a national government and state governments. However, it was not always a federal system, it was not based on the Constitution, but on the Articles of Confederation. This system divides authority between sovereign national and state government. Under the Articles of the Confederation, each state retained its ultimate governing authority. .“The power of government must be equal to its responsibilities.…show more content…
The state government was protected under the Articles of Confederation and had the ultimate governing authority. 2“The government of the Articles was a union of states rather than also of people. The result was a weak national government, since its strength depended entirely of the states’ willingness to cooperate (p 61).” If the states refused to pay the national government could not do anything to get the money. The final result of non-payment from the states was a weaker national defense. The states wanted to retain their sovereignty and argued that the national government would not be able serve the people as well as the union of states. Under the new governing system known as federalism the state government would have the responsibilities of the chartering of local governments, education, public safety, registration and voting, intrastate commerce.
In 1787 a new form of government was introduced at the Philadelphia convention, which changed the power between national and state governments. 3“The Philadelphia convention thereby devised a governing system that came to be known as federalism. Federalism is the division of sovereignty, or ultimate governing authority between a national government and regional (that is, state) governments. Each directly governs the people and derives it powers
Political System: Essay on the Meaning of Political System!
The system theory in social sciences was adopted from biology. It first made its appearance in the field of social anthropology from where it was adopted in sociology, a little later in psychology and still later in political science. David Easton and Gabriel Almond played a leading role in developing the system theory in the field of political science.
According to Easton, a political system is “that system of interactions in any society through which binding or authoritative allocations are made and implemented.” Thus it is the making of binding or authoritative allocations which distinguishes the political system from other systems both within and outside the over-all society.
Max Weber has defined political system as “a human community that successfully claims the monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force within a given territory.” Almond defines political system as “that system of interactions to be found in all independent societies which performs the functions of integration and adaptation (both internally and vis-a-vis other societies) by means of the employment or threat of employment of more or less legitimate physical compulsion.”
According to MacIver, Almond’s definition of political system combines, “Weber’s definition of the state, Easton’s conception of authoritative allocation and Parsons’ view of the function of the political sub-system in society.”
It is not our purpose here to analyse the above definitions of political system and examine their exactness or inexactness; that is the job of a student of political science. As a student of sociology, it may be noted that force or physical coercion forms an essential element of a political system.
Although all other systems like churches or families or business firms employ authority of one kind or the other but what distinguishes political systems from other types of social sub-system is that the latter do not have absolute coercive powers over the life and death of individuals. It is the monopoly of coercive power which characterizes the relationships between the political system and non-political systems.
Since state is the most powerful political organisation which regulates the social relationship of man and is the overall control institution of society, therefore its study becomes important for a student of sociology.